Tuesday, June 20, 2017
Wednesday, June 14, 2017
Monday, June 12, 2017
According to a study carried out at the University of Helsinki, Finland, a common periodontal pathogen may delay conception in young women. This finding is novel: previous studies have shown that periodontal diseases may be a risk for general health, but no data on the influence of periodontal bacteria on conception or becoming pregnant have been available.
"Our results encourage young women of fertile age to take care of their oral health and attend periodontal evaluations regularly", says periodontist and researcher Susanna Paju, University of Helsinki.
Study population comprised 256 healthy non-pregnant women (mean age 29.2 years, range 19 to 42) who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. They were enrolled from the general community from Southern Finland. Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed. Detection of major periodontal pathogens in saliva and analysis of serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens as well as a vaginal swab for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis at baseline were carried out.
Subjects were followed-up to establish whether they did or did not become pregnant during the observation period of 12 months.
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium associated with periodontal diseases, was significantly more frequently detected in the saliva among women who did not become pregnant during the one-year follow-up period than among those who did. The levels of salivary and serum antibodies against this pathogen were also significantly higher in women who did not become pregnant.
Statistical analysis showed that the finding was independent of other risk factors contributing to conception, such as age, current smoking, socioeconomic status, bacterial vaginosis, previous deliveries, or clinical periodontal disease.
Women who had P. gingivalis in the saliva and higher saliva or serum antibody concentrations against this bacterium had a 3-fold hazard for not becoming pregnant compared to their counterparts. Increased hazard was nearly to 4-fold if more than one of these qualities and clinical signs of periodontitis were present.
"Our study does not answer the question on possible reasons for infertility but it shows that periodontal bacteria may have a systemic effect even in lower amounts, and even before clear clinical signs of gum disease can be seen", says Dr. Paju. "More studies are needed to explain the mechanisms behind this association."
Infertility is a major concern, and increasing healthcare resources are needed for infertility treatments. More attention should be paid to the potential effects of common periodontal diseases on general health. Young women are encouraged to take care of their oral health and maintain good oral hygiene also when they are planning pregnancy, suggests Dr. Paju.
Wednesday, May 24, 2017
Tuesday, May 23, 2017
Dentists in good compliance with American Heart Association guidelines, according to Rochester epidemiology project
In the first study examining dental records in the Rochester Epidemiology Project, results show that dentists and oral surgeons are in good compliance with guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in 2007, describing prophylactic antibiotic use prior to invasive dental procedures.
The Rochester Epidemiology Project is a collaboration of medical and dental care providers in Minnesota and Wisconsin. With patient agreement, the organizations link medical, dental, surgical procedures, prescriptions, and other health care data for medical research.
Prior to 2007, the AHA guidelines recommended prophylactic antibiotics for patients with cardiac conditions who were at moderate or high risk of developing infective endocarditis -- a potentially deadly infection of the heart valve. After 2007, AHA recommended that only high-risk patients receive the antibiotics. This group represents a very small fraction of the individuals receiving antibiotics before 2007, says Daniel DeSimone, M.D., study lead author and infectious diseases and hospital internal medicine physician at Mayo Clinic. The study will be released May 23 online in Mayo Clinic Proceedings.
Earlier studies by Dr. DeSimone's team determined the incidence of infective endocarditis in Olmsted County before and after 2007, using Rochester Epidemiology Project data. They found no significant increase in cases of infective endocarditis following the introduction of updated AHA guidelines.
However, "the major limitation of these studies was the lack of access to dental records," says Dr. DeSimone.
"The inclusion of dental records in the Rochester Epidemiology Project provides a unique opportunity unlike any population health database in the United States," he says.
"The primary criticism of the earlier studies was, 'Are dentists actually following the 2007 AHA guidelines, or do patients continue to receive antibiotics when no longer indicated?'" reports Dr. DeSimone. "How could we prove that dentists were actually following the guidelines, rather than assuming they were? Now we can."
Dr. DeSimone also says, there are a number of health risks for patients when taking antibiotics. "Plus overuse of antibiotics can result in increased bacterial resistance, which is a widespread public health problem," he says.
In addition, while the cost to patients might only be a few dollars a dose, Dr. DeSimone says that when added up, this group of moderate-risk patients could spend well over $100 million per year.
"Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we have shown that the new guidelines were very helpful in reducing unnecessary antibiotic use and related issues, without an increase in new cases of infective endocarditis."
Although this was the first study using the newly linked dental records, it was just one of more than 2,600 medical research publications using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Using medical and dental records, researchers can identify what causes diseases and how patients with certain diseases respond to surgery, medication or other interventions. They also can determine what the future holds for patients with specific diseases or medical conditions.
Friday, May 19, 2017
Being overweight or obese was linked with an increased likelihood of having poor oral health in a recent study.
In the study of 160 participants, those with BMI ?23 had generally more severe periodontitis, total inflammatory dental diseases, and leukocyte counts than normal weight individuals. Patients who were obese (BMI ?25) had almost a 6-times increased risk for severe periodontitis compared with normal weight participants. Altered inflammatory molecules that are associated with obesity may play a role.
The results are published in Oral Diseases.